Elisabeth Braw, Senior Research Fellow, Modern Deterrence, Military Sciences, RUSI, opened the discussion saying: “National resilience is important because without it we are completely exposed to calamities heading our way either from mother nature or from our adversaries. For military aggression the UK is very well prepared but below that threshold we are underprepared. A lack of forward thinking and planning has been exposed by Covid-19. Our adversaries will have noted this and are ready to exploit it. It is just unsustainable for the wider public in the UK to have been so unprepared as they were for the impact of Covid-19.